The microbiome, which is found beneath the top layer of dead skin, consists of billions of microorganisms that help form a natural barrier against bad bacteria and manage inflammation and the skin’s pH. Whether we’re talking about our skin or our gut, the goal is to have a balanced microbiome. When the skin’s microbiome gets out of whack, it can lead to skin issues like acne and eczema.

When used topically, probiotic skincare products produce antimicrobial peptides that fight bad bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Pretty much everyone can benefit from this, but research shows that probiotics are especially skilled at taming acne and rosacea by inhibiting inflammation, oil production, and the growth of propionibacterium, a bacteria linked to breakouts.